This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. An image of a mosquito being zapped by a laser. Credit: Intellectual Ventures. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Scientists Build Anti-Mosquito Laser Video clips of mosquitoes being killed by lasers. If played in real time, these segments would be roughly 1/10th of a second long. Credit: Intellectual Ventures. The device originated from a challenge by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation seeking a way to reduce the one million deaths caused each year from malaria. As Myrhvold noted at the conference, a child dies of malaria every 43 seconds. Although early prototypes of the mosquito laser worked, they were too expensive for use in developing countries. In the latest version, the mosquito laser is assembled from commonly availably technology. In fact, Myhrvold and his team found all the components on Ebay, which included parts from printers and projectors, and the zoom lenses from digital cameras. He estimates that the new version could cost as little as $50 to manufacture, depending on volume.During his demonstration, Myhrvold released hundreds of mosquitoes into a glass tank. A laser tracked their movements and shot them down one by one, leaving their carcasses on the bottom of the tank. Myhrvold said that the lasers could shoot between 50 and 100 mosquitoes per second.Besides being fast, the laser is accurate, too; it can distinguish butterflies from mosquitoes, and can also tell the difference between male and female mosquitoes. Only female mosquitoes, whose wings beat at lower frequencies, bite humans.“You could kill billions of mosquitoes a night and you could do so without harming butterflies,” Myhrvold said.Ultimately, the goal is to use the lasers to create protective fences around homes and clinics, as well as in agricultural fields as a substitute for pesticides. Myhrvold, a former Microsoft chief technology officer, and other researchers designed the mosquito laser as a method for combating malaria, which is caused by a parasite carried by mosquitoes. One of the team’s inventors, astrophysicist Lowell Wood, had helped design the Cold War-era Star Wars laser shields in the 1980s, which partly inspired the mosquito laser concept. More information: — IntellectualVenturesLab.com– Scientists Build Anti-Mosquito Laser: www.physorg.com/news156423566.html In the video below, you can watch what happens to a mosquito at the instant it’s zapped by a laser, all in slow-motion. Nathan Myhrvold’s company, Intellectual Ventures, has been developing the mosquito laser since 2008. Myhrvold recently demonstrated the device at the annual TED conference in Long Beach, Calif. Citation: Researchers demonstrate mosquito laser in action (w/ Video) (2010, February 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-02-mosquito-laser-action-video.html Explore further
(a, left) Memory device layout and (right) equivalent thermal circuit. (b) The memory device has two stable states, indicated by the yellow stars, that correspond to a binary “0” and “1.” The plot shows the heat conduction lost from the head through the stem (blue line), the near-field radiative heat supplied to the head (red line), and the net heat transferred from the head (green line), all plotted against head temperature. If a stable state is perturbed, it will automatically increase or decrease the head temperature to return to the nearest stable state. Credit: Elzouka and Ndao. ©2014 AIP Publishing The researchers, graduate student Mahmoud Elzouka and Assistant Professor Sidy Ndao at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, have published a paper on the NanoThermoMechanical memory in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters.”The important significance is the actual design/development of a practical, high-temperature memory (and logic) device,” Ndao told Phys.org. “Currently, nothing exists that can fulfill data recording or random access memories that can function well in extreme environments.”In the proposed NanoThermoMechanical memory, the two binary memory states “0” and “1” are represented by two stable temperature states. In simulations, for example, a temperature of 1038 K represents “0” while 1341 K represents “1.” Having two distinct stable temperature states is unusual, as most devices have only one such state. The key to achieving two stable states involves careful engineering to control the heat transfer between two closely spaced bodies. In the proposed set-up, the two closely spaced bodies are a hot fixed top terminal and an unfixed colder head just beneath it. The head is free to move up and down, and is connected by a stem to a bottom fixed “cold” (600 K in simulations) terminal. When heat is applied to the hot terminal, some of the heat is transferred to the head by far-field thermal radiation. As the temperature of the head increases, the stem elongates due to thermal expansion, so the head moves even closer to the hot terminal. As the temperature of the head increases, the separation distance between the hot terminal and the head becomes so small (on the order of one wavelength of radiation) that near-field rather than far-field thermal radiation becomes the dominant method of heat transfer. Importantly, heat transfer from the hot terminal to the colder head now actually increases, even though the temperature difference between the terminal and the head decreases. This somewhat counterintuitive phenomenon, called negative differential thermal resistance (NDTR), is what enables the existence of two stable temperature states.As shown in the figure above, each of the two stable temperature states occurs when the heat supplied to the head by the hot terminal (via near-field radiation) is equal to the heat lost from the head (via conduction down the stem). These two stable states, also called thermal latching states, are represented by yellow stars in the figure. If a stable state is perturbed by a decrease in temperature, it automatically returns to the stable state by gaining heat; if perturbed by an increase in temperature, it returns to the stable state by losing heat. About halfway in between the two stable states is a critical state, above which the system moves to the higher stable temperature state, and below which it moves to the lower stable temperature state.By using a thermal probe to control the temperature of the hot terminal, data can be written and stored in the memory. The data can later be read out by measuring the temperature of an insulated probe. In the future, the NanoThermoMechanical memory could also be used as a logic device, also with the advantage of operating in high-temperature environments. The next steps include experimentally realizing the memory design.”We are currently in the process of fabricating a working prototype of the near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory,” Ndao said. Citation: Thermal memory thrives at extremely high temperatures (2015, January 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-01-thermal-memory-extremely-high-temperatures.html Journal information: Applied Physics Letters (Phys.org)—While the performance of electronic memory devices degrades at high temperatures, a newly proposed memory actually requires temperatures in excess of 600 K to operate. Called NanoThermoMechanical memory, the new device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. With its ability to operate at extremely high temperatures, the memory could be used in space exploration missions, deep-well drilling, and in combustion engines, among other applications. Explore further © 2015 Phys.org Scientists Propose Thermal Memory to Store Data More information: Mahmoud Elzouka and Sidy Ndao. “Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.4904828 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: L. Canale et al. “MicroMegascope.” Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aacbadAlso at arXiv:1805.05231 [physics.ins-det] Citation: Researchers develop ‘MicroMegascope’: imaging with a tuning fork (2018, July 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-micromegascope-imaging-tuning-fork.html In the MicroMegascope, the oscillator consists of a tuning fork with a tungsten tip on the lower arm and an accelerometer on the upper arm. Also shown are resonance curves for different types of prong oscillations. Credit: Canale et al. ©2018 IOP Publishing © 2018 Phys.org The use of a different resonance in atomic force microscopy enhances resolution Currently, atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are one of the most widely used tools for imaging, measuring, and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. One of the key components of an AFM is a microscale oscillator, which scans the topographical features of a sample. Unfortunately, however, the fabrication of microscale oscillators is a complex and expensive process. Explore further In a new paper published in Nanotechnology, a team of researchers from the Laboratoire de Physique Statistique at the École Normale Supérieure, CNRS, in Paris, have demonstrated that a 7-centimeter-long aluminum tuning fork can replace the microscale oscillator in an AFM, and still produce images of nanoscale resolution and equal quality. “By analogy, to feel a roughness of 100 nm with an instrument 7 cm long is like feeling the thickness of a virus under the antenna of the Eiffel tower,” coauthor Antoine Niguès at the École Normale Supérieure told Phys.org. “Moreover, the use of this large tuning fork considerably reduces the manufacturing costs of the AFM and greatly simplifies its use.”In addition, the modified AFM, which the researchers call “MicroMegascope,” can image objects that are immersed in liquid without any loss of quality, and without requiring any adjustments. This is a big advantage over conventional AFMs, which suffer from reduced image quality and require alternative probes to operate in liquid environments.Ever since the AFM was first invented in the mid-’80s by IBM scientists Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christoph Gerber, it has become a standard laboratory tool with a wide variety of applications, from condensed matter to biological matter. An AFM creates a topographical map of an object’s surface by scanning the micro-oscillator over the surface. As the micro-oscillator approaches the surface, interaction forces between its tip and the sample induce changes in the mechanical motion of the oscillator. By measuring these changes, the topography of the sample can be reconstructed with nanoscale resolution.The MicroMegascope works in much the same way as a conventional AFM, except that it uses a centimeter-scale tuning fork as the oscillator. The relatively large tuning fork, which has a sharp tungsten tip glued to the end of one prong, essentially behaves as a mass-spring system. An accelerometer glued to one prong measures the tuning fork’s acceleration, which is directly proportional to its oscillation amplitude. The researchers demonstrated that, despite the large size and mass of the tuning fork, images obtained by the MicroMegascope have comparable quality as those obtained by conventional AFMs, without the formidable fabrication challenges.The researchers hope that, in the future, the MicroMegascope will further extend the versatility of AFMs. Due to the larger size of the oscillator, it’s possible to attach not only nanoscale tips but also, for example, macroscopic spherical tips. In addition, the oscillator has a greater stability, along with the ability to operate in high-viscosity liquid environments. All of these abilities may open the doors to new imaging applications. “We are already using the MicroMegascope to probe fundamental forces at the nanoscale and measure their impact at the macroscale,” Niguès said. Journal information: Nanotechnology This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
A few years ago, social scientist Francesca Gino was browsing the shelves at a bookstore when she came across an unusual-looking book in the cooking section: Never Trust a Skinny Italian Chef by Massimo Bottura. The recipes in it were playful, quirky — and improbable. Snails were paired with coffee sauce, veal tongue with charcoal powder. Francesca, who is Italian, says remixing classic recipes like this is a kind of heresy in Italian cooking. “We really cherish the old way,” she says. But Bottura — one of the most influential chefs in the world — couldn’t resist circling back to one, big question: Why do we have to follow these rules? It’s the kind of question Gino loves. A professor at Harvard Business School, she has spent much of her career studying non-conformists; specifically, people who break the rules, and end up in trouble. But now, standing in the bookstore, she wondered whether letting go of norms and traditions can sometimes lead to the most sublime examples of creative thinking. Read the whole story: NPR
Simply put, if you enjoy working at office during
The 40th edition of IHGF Delhi Fair Autumn 2015, which is the world’s largest fair of Indian handicrafts and gifts was declared open by Santosh Kumar Gangwar, Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) at the India Expo Centre and Mart on Wednesday. The fair is being organised by the Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts (EPCH).Vimla Batham, MLA, Gautam Budh Nagar, Dr SK Panda, Secretary (Textiles), Ministry of Textiles, Rama Raman, Chairman, GNIDA, Rakesh Kumar, Chairman and Executive Director, India Expo Centre & Mart, and Alok Kumar, Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) were also present in the inaugural ceremony. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Rakesh Kumar, Chairman, India Expo Centre & Mart and Executive Director, EPCH, while welcoming the chief guest and other dignitaries apprised everyone of IHGF-Delhi’s journey over the last
Kolkata: Cab hailing service Ola Thursday launched its fleet service here in which vehicles would be given on lease to driver-partners. West Bengal Transport Minister Suvendu Adhikari said that at the Bengal Global Business Summit held in the city in January, the government had signed a MoU with Ola to create 5,000 jobs in the city. The launch of fleet services on Thursday is a step in that direction. “The launch of Ola Fleet is a result of the MoU with 50 cars being given initially to the driver-partners. The company will invest Rs 350 crore and the number will be scaled up in future,” he said. Transport secretary B P Gopalika said that the cab aggregators, both Uber and Ola, should ensure that prices do not surge more than what had been allowed by the government. The government has allowed a maximum surge of 45 per cent over base fare for app-cab operators in the city. Any complaint about abnormal surge would be dealt with strongly, he said.
Kolkata: State Urban Development and Municipal Affairs minister Firhad Hakim urged the organisers of the 31st Industrial India Trade Fair (IITF) to make arrangements of starting some sort of entrepreneurship development programme.”The state government has taken significant strides in the ease of doing business in the state and at the same time is promoting entrepreneurship and encouraging start-ups. It will be nice if there can be some course on entrepreneurship development,” Hakim said at the inauguration of the IITF that kicked off at Park Circus Maidan on Friday. The Fair organised by the Bengal National Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BNCCI) will be held for 11 days. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeHakim added that Bengal is positioned at number one in the MSME sector and the government, under the leadership of Mamata Banerjee, has been able to usher in a change in the mindset of people who are now interested to take up business ventures. “There was a time when people would only go for some time-bound office jobs. But now, entrepreneurs are coming up with new ideas and taking up business ventures many of which have been very successful too,” he added. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedSatyam Roychowdhury, president of BNCCI, said the highlights of the IITF this year will be three major conclaves. There will be an education conclave on December 22, industry conclave on December 24 and another on skill development on December 26. “There will be competitions in the form of hackathon where awards will be given out for innovative projects and start-ups,” he maintained. Apart from participants from the state, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Turkey have also put up their stalls at the fair.
A crystal, or at least what appears to be a crystal, still causes excitement from an incredibly rare meteorite found in Siberia. Even with all the scientific knowledge that mankind has amassed over the centuries and our ever-increasing understanding of the universe, scientists still find things once in a while that come as a total surprise. Some years ago scientists found a small piece of a mineral that was created shortly after our solar system, some four and half billion years ago. The mineral was brought to Earth by the Khatyrka meteorite, which landed in Eastern Siberia.The mineral, itself, was less interesting for its sheer age than for its structure. It possessed an atomic structure that we have never before found in nature, although it has been created in laboratory settings. It was referred to as a quasicrystal, because from the exterior it resembles a crystal, but its interior is a whole other matter.The Holsinger meteoriteWhat makes a crystal, well, a crystal, is the fact that its atoms are arranged in very consistent and predictable structures that are like lattices, and those structures just keep repeating themselves. The quasicrystal, however, had ordered lattices, but they weren’t consistent and identical. Instead, they were arranged in a variety of different configurations, which should be impossible in a natural substance based on our understanding of the science.AdChoices广告inRead invented by TeadsMurnpeowie Meteorite – this spectacular, 2520 pound iron meteorite was found in the South Australian Outback in 1909. Photo by James St. John CC by 2.0There are plenty of scientists who doubted such quasi crystals could be found in nature, despite their having been successfully created in labs since the early 1960, but Paul Steinhardt, at theoretical physicist from Princeton University, isn’t one of them. Who found the sample and studied it. He and his team did an extensive study of the mineral and tried to work out how such a thing might have been formed on Earth, but eventually were forced to conclude that it had to have been carried here from somewhere off the planet.The Canyon Diablo Meteorite. Photo by James St. John CC by 2.0It was reported by the International Business Times that, according to Boris Shustov, the head of the Institute of Astronomy at the Russian Academy of Science, it’s not that unusual to find new minerals embedded in meteorites, since they’re not formed under the same conditions as mineral are formed on Earth.Steinhardt’s team agrees. As the result of their research strongly suggested that the formation of this unnatural quasicrystal could only happen under astrophysical conditions. The team found that this new mineral was embedded in another, known mineral called stishovite. Stishovite comes from meteorites, and it was surrounding the quasicrystals, both minerals had to have been created at about the same time, under a high-pressure process in the meteorite before it landed on the planet. Another critical clue that the quasicrystal wasn’t from here is the fact that the ratio of oxygen isotopes found in the mineral aren’t consistent with any similar ratio found on Earth.A Ho-Mg-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal formed as a pentagonal dodecahedron, the dual of the icosahedron. Unlike the similar pyritohedron shape of some cubic-system crystals such as pyrite, the quasicrystal has faces that are true regular pentagonsSteinhardt was quoted as saying, “The finding is important evidence that quasicrystals can form in nature under astrophysical conditions, and provides evidence that this phase of matter can remain stable over billions of years”.His team went to Siberia to try to find more samples to study, and were able to obtain fresh samples from the meteorite. Even with the new samples, finding quasicrystal is very difficult, because they are so small. The team did eventually find two other such quasicrystals, the second one being discovered five years after starting their analysis of the samples they had obtained. All three of the quasicrystals they found had its own unique molecular structure.Pieces of the Khatyrka meteorite are being studied by other teams of scientists, for other purposes, as well. Chi Ma, the Director of the Geological and Planetary Sciences division’s analytical facility at Caltech, has also had a team studying samples from the find, in search of new minerals from space. Ma and his team have been given the credit for having discovered about 7% of all the new minerals that have been discovered from meteorites around the world, and, in fact discovered 35 previously unknown new minerals from the same meteorite.One of the things that makes this particular lump of space rock such a rich source of new finds is that it contains a large amount of naturally-occurring aluminum which hasn’t oxidized, it’s the first meteorite ever found in which that’s the case. All three of the quasicrystals found by Steinhardt and his team are a mix of aluminum, iron, and copper.Related Article: Extraterrestrial Mineral Harder than Diamonds Discovered in IsraelIf there’s any larger lesson to be learned from these discoveries, especially of this meteorite crystal, it’s that the universe is much more diverse than we know and that what we understand as the laws of science may only apply on our small planet.
Advertisement Russell Wilson is Russell Wilson and the Dolphins are the Dolphins. This game summed up these two organizations in a nutshell. Russell Wilson wins an ugly one because he’s a winner. Wilson gutted out the game winning drive when it mattered most on a bad ankle. Tannehill and the Dolphins blew any chance at a winning field goal by not realizing they had a running clock. They take a sack in the end zone to end it. Yup.Russell Wilson ➡️ Doug Baldwin! ???@Seahawks come from behind to win two… ???#MIAvsSEA https://t.co/tMrQY54fxm— NFL UK (@NFLUK) September 11, 2016 3. Bad clock management kills the Cowboys, but it wasn’t Dak Prescott’s fault.Credit is due for Dak Prescott. He wasn’t perfect, but he was 24 of 45 for 227 and certainly didn’t look like the game was too fast, or the stage was too big. The Cowboys blew the game on a clock management fiasco, but that’s not on Prescott. Terrence Williams, it’s Mr. Jones on line two. The Giants win the game 20 -19, but there were encouraging signs for Big D.“Get out of bounds!!!” – Everyone, probably. #NYGvsDAL https://t.co/mD0qyhECyt— NFL (@NFL) September 11, 2016 Colin made it crystal clear on The Herd today that he thinks Jimmy G is a franchise QB.Fall in love with Jimmy Garoppolo not Dak Prescott. #HerdHere pic.twitter.com/w3F1heoblr— Herd w/Colin Cowherd (@TheHerd) September 12, 2016 2. Bill Belichick is a sorcerer of the dark arts and Jimmy G is dreamy.The Pats march into Arizona without Brady and manage to pull one out on the back of sheer organizational superiority. Jimmy G looks like a more than adequate four game fill-in while Brady is tossing footballs on Facebook with Giselle in the back yard at the estate. A 1 – 0 start to their four game mini-season is all they could ask for. Jimmy Smelling Salts goes for 24 of 33 for 264 and gets the game ball, but hats off to the hoodie. Bill was amped after the big road win.Bill Belichick really, really cares about the storylines pic.twitter.com/3dINSfHaBb— Henry McKenna (@McKennAnalysis) September 12, 2016 4. “Riverboat Ron” meet “Black Jack” Del Rio. Why go to overtime on the road and get stuck on the red eye back to the East Bay? Going for two and the win is a genius move when it works and everyone is a genius in Oakland this morning. Derek Carr keeps progressing. A confidence building win for a young squad that’s looking to take the next step. There’s a lot to like with the Raiders..@Raiders score a TD.Go for 2… and the LEAD.@DerekCarrQB + @KingCrab15. GOT IT! #RaiderNation #OAKvsNO https://t.co/nXiCHPoEEH— NFL (@NFL) September 11, 2016Del Rio also tweeted out The Sick Burn of the Day after the game.Good thing ESPN isn’t coaching the Raiders https://t.co/X6tB1YlZ4d— Jack Del Rio (@coachdelrio) September 11, 20165. AJ Green owns Darrelle Revis. Being stuck on Revis Island used to elicit visions of being stranded on the island from Castaway. Yesterday, AJ Green built a 5-star all-inclusive with a golf course, a petting zoo and a zipline. Green continued to take the shine off of Revis’ rep by torching him for 180 yards and a score. The one-on-one matchup of the day was a one-sided affair.“Damn he kinda fast huh?” -island boy RT @2Tanks_DRE: Lordy RT @LeadingNFL: AJ Green over Revis…for six! pic.twitter.com/oWQGSQrOxl— Gem’y Butler (@Pworldwide) September 11, 2016